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Ultimate & Proximate

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Coal comes in three main types, or ranks:

  1. lignite or brown coal,
  2. bituminous coal or black coal, and
  3. anthracite or hard coal.

Each type of coal has a certain set of parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile and carbon content. Proximate analysis determines the fixed carbon, volatile matter, moisture and ash percentages.
The amounts of fixed carbon and volatile combustible matter directly contribute to the heating value of coal. Fixed carbon acts as a main heat generator during burning. High volatile matter content indicates easy ignition of fuel. The ash content is important in the design of the furnace grate, combustion volume, pollution control equipment and ash handling systems of a furnace.
Thus proximate analysis is used to establish the rank/category/type of coals and provide the ratio of combustible to non-combustible constituents.

Certificate of Registration with the NNR

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Radionuclides are present in all naturally occurring minerals and raw materials. Of regulatory importance are the radioactive isotopes in uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. These materials are commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). In some instances the levels of NORM are quite considerable and thus restrictive procedural controls are required.

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